Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, anti-war activist and outstanding representative of the European socialist movement. She was one of the few women active in politics in times when prejudice against women in public life was widespread, extending well into the left-wing parties. She and Karl Liebknecht co-founded the anti-war Spartacus League, which eventually became the KPD (the Communist Party of Germany). Luxemburg worked on a humanitarian theory of Marxism, which emphasized democracy and insurgent mass action working towards global socialism. Her struggle against war and radical persistence towards political freedom and social equality are as important today as they were a hundred years ago. She was brutally murdered in 1919 by people who were part of the same crowd that would later support the Nazis.